Dear Crawford Cousins

We finally have DNA evidence of a relationship between our James Crawford (md Sally Smith Duggins) and his neighbor, James Crawford (md. Martha Knight). In addition, we have evidence of a DNA relationship with the James Crawford who owned land on Paint Lick Creek in Kentucky.

However, this DNA evidence does not tell us HOW we are related. It might also be telling us that we are not as closely related as we thought.

Below is a diagram of what the yDNA tree probably looks like.

The bright yellow boxes represent the ancestors of other yDNA testers. The light orange box represents the yDNA tester of my line. This diagram supports an uncle/nephew relationship between the James of Paint Lick area and the James that married Martha Knight. Even though a will for John Crawford has been found that identifies his wife as Rebekah and names sons James and Nathan, documentation has not been found to help prove that the family in Kentucky is the same family named in the Virginia will.

For a time, it was believed that our James (md Sally Duggins) was also a nephew of the James Crawford that married Rebecca Anderson Maxwell thru James’ brother, Andrew. However, the yDNA information does not support that close of a relationship. Thus, Andrew is no longer considered a potential ancestor.

Since we are all in the same yDNA haplogroup, we are related. However, it appears that our James (md Sally Duggins) is possibly a cousin to the James Crawford that married Rebecca Anderson Maxwell.

More research both with DNA and with records needs to be done to prove these relationships and to identify that elusive common ancestor. Thus, your help is needed.

  • If on Facebook, please consider joining the conversation by joining the group: Clan Crawford Association Ancestry & DNA Research Forum
  • If my previous posts and Ancestry tree caused you to add Andrew Crawford as the father of James Crawford (1772-1854), please remove Andrew as the father of James at least for now. This will hopefully help Ancestry ThruLines search for someone besides Andrew as a potential father.
  • If you have tested your DNA with Ancestry, please look for matches that have the Crawford surname who were born in Preble County, Ohio or Garrard County, Kentucky. These matches are likely related on our Crawford tree somehow.
  • If you have tested your DNA with Ancestry, please look for matches that have the SELLERS surname. There are two SELLERS marriages in Lincoln County Kentucky to CRAWFORDs. These Crawford women are likely sisters to James Crawford (1770-1833). Even though my Crawford line has no known Sellers ancestor, I have lots of Sellers DNA matches. Thus, these Sellers matches might be a key to figuring out our Crawford relationships.
  • Please help by poking holes in my research or making suggestions for further research.
  • Since we should protect the privacy of our DNA matches, we should not publicly share the name of our matches or shared matches. Instead, please invite them to join this conversation.
  • If you are willing to be part of a collaborative group to further research these Crawford families, please leave a comment on this post or message me on Facebook (Marcia Crawford Philbrick).

Below are some links to these various families on FamilySearch

The ‘Collaborate’ menu allows one to add a discussion to an individual on FamilySearch. This is a way to ask questions or make suggestions for individuals on the FamilySearch tree.

Below are links to these same people in my Ancestry tree.

The comment feature on Ancestry should allow anyone to leave a comment on my tree. Unfortunately, I’m not sure how I would figure out that you had left a comment. If you wish to leave a comment on my tree, please do so, but please also notify me somehow so that I can read your comment.

Please help us take advantage of all of this DNA information by asking to join the Crawford Facebook group and by collaborating on this research. Together, let’s figure out who those question marks at the top of he chart represent!

DNA JOY!

My mind is ‘jumping up and down’ with joy this morning. Another CRAWFORD researcher contacted me this morning to let me know he had found out his haplogroup: R-Y88686. That is the SAME haplogroup as my brother.

We FINALLY have some evidence that we are related!

We both descend from James Crawford of Preble County, Ohio. His James Crawford was born in 1770 in Augusta County, Virginia and died in 1833 in Warren County, Indiana. My James was born in 1772 in Virginia and died in 1854 in Preble County, Ohio.

Both men were living in Kentucky prior to 1800. His James married Martha Knight in 1793 in Lincoln County, Kentucky. My James married Sally Duggins in 1799 in Garrard County, Kentucky. (Garrard County was formed in 1797 from Lincoln and Madison counties.)

In 1811, his James filed land entry papers showing he had made the final payment for the SW 1/4 of Section 14, Township 7 Range 2 East in Preble County, Ohio. In 1816, my James filed similar land entry papers showing he had made the final payment for the NW 1/4 of Section 14, Township 7, Range 2 East in Preble County, Ohio. Yes, they owned adjoining land.

These two families appear to have migrated together for over 100 years. Thus, we have long suspected a relationship.

Not only has our yDNA tests shown us that we need to keep looking for that relationship, but it has added a third James Crawford to the mix. This James was also in Garrard County prior to 1800. James was born in Augusta County, Virginia in 1758 and died in Jefferson County, Indiana in 1836. In 1779, this James Crawford married Rebecca Anderson Maxwell in Montgomery County, Virginia.

So that’s three members of our haplogroup:

  • three James Crawfords
  • all in Garrard County, Kentucky prior to 1800
  • all born in Virginia – likely in early Augusta County, Virginia
  • no father/son relationship between any of the three James Crawfords

The fourth member of our haplogroup descends from William Nelson Crawford. William was born in 1829 in Ohio. Little information about William has been found prior to his marriage to Julia Ann Decious in 1864 in Lassen, California. By 1877, William and Julia were living in Klickitat County, Washington. William died in Klickitat County in 1907.

This William Crawford may have been the 21 year old William Crawford listed in the household of William Crawford (son of James and Martha Crawford) on the 1850 census in Pike Township, Warren County, Indiana.

If so, that would place William Nelson Crawford in Warren County, Indiana along with James and Martha Crawford and their children and with my ancestor Nelson G. Crawford, son of James and Sally Crawford.

This new haplogroup information says these four families are related. We just need to do more digging to figure out how!

Alternate Names

Have you learned thru the years that spelling matters when doing an Internet search? On the other hand, have you found that spelling of names varies — and thus a specific spelling doesn’t matter any more? That need to be able to search for various spellings of a name was behind the development of the Soundex code.

Soundex code was very valuable in pre-Internet days for locating census records. It can still be used today with searches of Ancestry’s databases. Unfortunately, this concept isn’t used when Ancestry’s computers compares the trees of people who have a DNA match to identify the common ancestor. Instead, the computer is looking for an exact match.

As I’ve started researching an ancestor that Ancestry identified as a potential match, I’m running into spelling issues.

This new ancestor is a revolutionary war veteran, Major Simon Van Arsdale. In addition to his revolutionary war service, Simon Van Arsdale was part of the Low Dutch Settlement that migrated to Kentucky.

The discovery of Simon Van Arsdale as a potential ancestor is opening up doors to other potential ancestors and a lot of interesting history. Unfortunately, the spelling of the Van Arsdale name is making it difficult to locate records and to identify DNA matches. So far, I’ve identified the following spellings for this surname:

  • VanArsdale
  • Van Arsdale
  • Van Arsdalen
  • Vanarsdall
  • Vannarsdall
  • Van Artsdalen
  • Van Osdol
  • Vanosdol

For the most part, clicking to also use Soundex when searching Ancestry databases will help me get around the many spellings of the name. However, that option isn’t available when working with DNA matches. I recently learned that I should use the ‘alternate name’ fact to add variations on the spelling of a name.

This morning as I was thinking about the need to add ‘alternate name’ facts for Simon Van Arsdale, I saw a Facebook post questioning why Ancestry’s computers can’t find common ancestors when both parties of a DNA match have large trees. I believe the same post also talked about how changing the spelling of a name (Fannie to Fanny) caused the number of matches on a ThruLines to drop. In the comments on the post was a suggestion to add an ‘alternate name’ fact for the different spelling of the name. (Unfortunately, I haven’t been able to find this post back. Thus, I can’t give credit to the parties who wrote the post and the comment.)

In thinking about this question as to why the computers aren’t finding the common ancestors, I realized that spelling of surnames and name variations could be a big issue with my tree. I have a lot of places in my tree where the name I have could be slightly different from the name another person might have in their tree. However, I have one surname where this could be a big issue: CURREY.

Over the years, I have found that when the name is spelled with the ‘e’, the record is usually for someone in my line. I have also found records using the CURRY spelling that are for individuals in my line. Thus, the name could be spelled CURREY or CURRY. Since I only have the CURREY spelling in my direct ancestral line, I’m going to experiment with adding CURRY as an alternate name to see what happens to my ThruLines.

Below are the number of ThruLines matches for each generation of my CURREY line:

  • Hiram Currey – Dodge City – 1866-1943 —– 3 matches
  • Hiram Currey – Leavenworth – 1835-1901 —– 7 matches
  • Hiram Currey – Peoria – 1787 – ? —– 16 matches
  • HIram Currey – Ohio –? – ? —– 22 matches
  • Thomas Currey — Ohio — ? – ? —– 16 matches

I will add the ‘CURRY’ alternate name for each ancestor and their children. Then I will re-check my numbers in a few days. Hopefully, I will see the number of matches increase!

Small cM DNA Matches

Do you remember having conversations with your parents similar to ‘Why can’t I? Everyone else is doing it.’ Well, that is how I sometimes feel when it comes to my DNA research strategy. In other words, I often haven’t had a specific strategy, but was following the ‘crowd’.

That was at least true when I submitted my spit to Ancestry to have an autosomal DNA test completed over 4 years ago. At the time, I didin’t know much about DNA but was hoping that it would help break down the numerous brick walls in my family tree.

It was only after getting my results back that I started learning about the perceived limitations of these results.

Since my tree was already complete thru 5 and 6 generations and mostly complete thru 7 generations, my hopes of using my Ancestry DNA results to prove a new ancestor were dashed.

Then came the summer of 2020 when Ancestry announced that it had plans to remove the 6 and 7 cM matches from our lists of matches. Since Ancestry had also recently announced that over 18 million people had had their DNA tested by Ancestry, I knew that these smaller matches were adding to the data load. Thus, I looked at this move for what it was – a cost saving measure.

That was until I looked at my own ThruLines data and realized that I had ‘brick wall shattering’ information in my ThruLInes that utilized quite a few of these smaller matches to build these connections.

Thus, I started working to tag these smaller matches — starting with those identified as having a common ancestor. In working thru these matches, I found matches to support my paper research identifying Rachel Harris, daughter of Peter Harris as my third great grandmother. These matches helped me identify Peter’s wife along with the parents of Peter Harris and his wife, Rachel Simonse VanArsdale. This discovery led me to three revolutionary war ancestors and a very rich family history going back to the 1600s.

Knowing that there had to be other ‘yet to be identified’ common ancestors lurking in this pool of 6-7 cM matches, I decided I was going to try and tag as many of these matches as I could. Roberta Estes provided some guidance on how to do this in her blog on July 16: Ancestry to Remove DNA Matches Soon – Preservation Strategies with Detailed Instructions. So, I started by searching these matches for some of my surnames and then tagging them. Since this was a slow labor intensive process, I knew that I wasn’t going to be able to save very many of these matches.

Then I saw a post by Roger Froysaa on the Facebook group, Ancestry DNA Matching where Roger shared a script that could automatically tag these 6 and 7 cM matches. Roger not only shared several versions of his script but also wrote a script to cause the list of matches to scroll to the bottom. These scripts worked — to a point. I would either get an ‘Aw Shucks’ your browser crashed OR a message from Ancestry that their backend servers were overtaxed. Charles Updike shared changes to the script, including a different script to scroll to the bottom.

This morning, I saw another post on the AncestryDNA Matching group about these scripts. This post was by Kay Simpkins where she shared a script written by Earl Haiks. I found the script in one of Kay’s comments on her post and copied/pasted it into Notepad.

After reading all of the comments on Kay’s post, I realized that I didn’t have to sort out the 6-7 cm matches, I just had to run the script. I renamed my ‘6-7 cM Matches’ group and called it ‘Distant Relatives’ so that I wouldn’t have to edit the script shared by Kay. I then ran it on my matches — and it was QUICK and I didn’t get any of those error messages. In about 4 hours early this morning, I was able to run this script on five tests. I still have one test to run the script on but am waiting until tonight when it should run faster than midday.

Below are the stats for these five kits:

SUCCESS AT LAST!

Now, I just have to continue researching ancestors / descendants on my tree so that Ancestry’s computing power can figure out the common ancestor for these distant matches.

None of this would have been possible if others had not been willing to share via a blog post or Facebook community. Thank you Roberta Estes, Roger Froysaa, Charles Updike, Kay Simpkins and Earl Haiks for your contributions to this conversation. Also a shout out to Jason Lee for creating and administering the AncestryDNA Matching Facebook group.

Help Needed!

As with many other genealogists, I’m struggling with the upcoming loss of small matches from my Ancestry DNA match list. I have no idea how many of these matches I have but I’m guessing it is in the thousands.

Since I will never have the time to work thru thousands upon thousands of matches to figure out how we connect, I’m hoping to use Ancestry’s computer technology to help me. Thus, I’m concentrating on my ThruLines matches, including the “potential ancestors”.

I have done a lot of descendancy research which I believe is helping Ancestry’s ThruLines technology connect me to DNA matches who have very small trees. Seeing the words ‘No Tree’ or ‘Unlinked Tree’ in my list of matches means I will scroll right past the match and will never take the time to figure out our relationship.

Thus, I need my over 100,000 matches to have a searchable tree attached to their DNA test(s).

PLEASE help me figure out our DNA connection by attaching a tree to your DNA results.

Completeness Part Two

Have you seen Ancestry’s recent news that they will be dropping smaller matches from our list of DNA matches? (Ancestry to Remove DNA Matches Soon) With over 100,000 matches on my list, I’m not sure I will miss most of those small matches.

However, I decided to look at my ThruLines and Common Ancestors matches to see what the impact might be. Since I have four DNA tests to manage, including my mother, I decided to start with the 5th great grandparent ThruLines. My goal is to add color coding dots and notes for ALL of the matches for each match listed on ThruLines.

As I’ve worked my way thru all of these 5th great grandparent ThruLines, I observed some matches with very small trees where the common ancestor was identified.

After finishing the 5th great grandparent ThruLines, I then looked at 6-7 cM matches who have an identified common ancestors. Going thru that list, I again observed quite a few small trees showing up as having a common ancestor.

Since I have done a lot of descendancy research, I’m guessing that all of that research is helping Ancestry’s computers to make these ‘common ancestor’ links between these small trees and my larger tree.

Unfortunately, there isn’t a magical report to ‘grade’ me on my research of descendants. However, seeing these DNA matches with small trees showing up with common ancestor connections is enough validation for me.

Thus, I will continue to work on my descendancy research — after I get done marking my 6-7 cM matches that appear to have a known connection.

For more information on how to do descendancy research, check out Crista Cowan’s video: What Is Descendancy Research.

ThruLines Error

Recently Jason Lee posted a Facebook poll asking whether readers agree or disagree with the statement, “All ThruLines errors are because of errors in trees.” As of today, 802 people agree with that statement, while I am in the minority of 120 people disagreeing.

The reason, I disagree with the statement is that the ThruLines for my 2nd great grandfather, James Crawford. This ThruLines suggests that William Monroe as a child of James Crawford based on a DNA match with a known 3rd cousin once removed.

Even though this match has a very small tree, she has enough in her tree that our trees should connect. Eugene Beggs, son of Walter Beggs and Ethel Anita Lighter is in both of our trees. My match’s tree includes Eugene Beggs’ father, Walter, but not his mother, Ethel Lighter.

Thus, our common ancestors are Washington Marion Crawford and his wife, Mary Foster. Not only is ThruLines suggesting an incorrect connection on the Crawford line but also on the Foster line. This time, it is suggesting Margaret E. Jordan as a daughter of Zebulon Foster.

In hopes of getting the algorithm to correct these ThruLines, I added this cousin to my tree several months ago. Unfortunately, I haven’t observed any change in the ThruLines. Not only do I have Eugene Beggs and his link to Washington Marion Crawford and Mary Foster in my tree, I have also researched these families and attached sources.

I keep hoping that the computer algorithm for ThruLines will discover this connection and show the correct way our lines connect.

Although I haven’t researched all of the suggested connections thru ThruLines, I haven’t found other errors. For the most part, I have been able to document the suggested connections. Because the ThruLines tool helps me see connections between myself and my DNA matches, I appreciate the information provided. However, I wish there was a way to report this ThruLines error to Ancestry. Unfortunately, I haven’t found such ability.

High Hopes – Disappointment

Have you heard about the new GedMatch Tier 1 tool to find common ancestors for DNA matches? If not, check out this Family Fanatics video about the tool.

Somehow, I had heard about the tool and decided to try it.

With only 14 results, I was a little disappointed. However, seeing James Crawford and Hannah Smith on my list of potential common ancestors was very exciting since these are brick walls on my Crawford line. Unfortunately, I was SO excited that I didn’t do my homework first. I didn’t watch the video. Nor, did I check out their gedcom files prior to contacting them.

I received an immediate response from my Hannah Smith connection — and Hannah Smith is NOT our common ancestor. I would have discovered that if I had taken the time to look at the gedcom file. My match’s Hannah Smith lived in England. My Hannah Smith lived in Indiana. After browsing thru the Ancestry tree for this match, I’m not sure where we connect — but it has to be quite a ways back. His tree is almost entirely based in England while my tree is deeply U.S.

I had similar results with my James Crawford match. His James Crawford is from New Brunswick while my James Crawford was born in Virginia, married in Kentucky and died in Ohio. However, my Harding line is in New Brunswick and I believe that our common ancestor would be a Flewelling. Unfortunately, I haven’t done much research on this branch of my family.

Based on my experience with these two matches, I think the tool is only comparing names and not the associated places and dates. However, I would never have discovered the FLEWELLING connection without this tool. Thus, I believe this tool has potential – especially if more people put gedcom files on the site along with their DNA results.

For those wanting to check out this new tool on GedMatch tool, please don’t be like me and contact matches without checking out their gedcom file. Watch the video above and check out the match’s gedcom file first!

Alexander Crawford Ancestors

One of my favorite Facebook groups is the Clan Crawford Association Ancestry & DNA Research Forum. If you are a Crawford researcher and NOT a member of this Facebook group, I strongly encourage you to ask to join the group. A lot of the discussion in this group is about DNA results – particularly yDNA. However, some of this discussion is about our Crawford brick walls and resources, including DNA, that we can use to help break down those brick walls.

Recently, there was a discussion about yDNA tests with Virginia roots. In the list of these tests with Virginia roots is a test showing Alexander Crawford b1715-d1764 as the earliest known ancestor. Since this person is one of my yDNA matches, I was able to view the pedigree and see that this Alexander Crawford is the Alexander Crawford of Augusta County, VA who was married to Mary McPheeters.

Recently, I was asked by an administrator of the Crawford project about the ancestry of Alexander Crawford.

Do you know if Alexander’s ancestors are documented, and if so, how far back? That R1b-01F kit’s tree lists this:

1 James Crawford b.1588 Glasgow, d.1660 Scotland, m. Margaret Maxwell
22 Patrick Crawford b.1628 Glasgow, d. 1656 Garrive, m. Jean Hamiltoun
333 Robert Crawford b.7 Sep 1656 Glasgow, d.30 Nov 1703 Glasgow, m. Mary Shaw
4444 William Crawford b.7 Jun 1691 Glasgow, d.1761 Ohio River, m. Mary Ann Douglas
55555 Alexander Crawford b.1715 Clydesdale, d.29 Sep 1764 Mountain View, VA, m. Mary McPheeters
666666 William Crawford b.1 Jun 1744 Mountain View, VA, d.15 Oct 1792 Mountain View, VA, m. Rachel Sawyers

I used several comments to answer this query. Below is a copy of my answers.

Part 1: The kit in R1b-01B that identifies Alexander Crawford (1715-1764) as his most distant relative goes thru Alexander’s grandson, James Crawford (1772-1854) who married Nancy Ann Sawyers in 1797. I have done some research – mostly in Ancestry records – on the descendants of James and Nancy Crawford and have documentation that supports that lineage. I haven’t done much research on William Crawford (1744-1792), but there is quite a bit of information on William and his descendants in the book, Descendants of Alexander and Mary McPheeters Crawford: Pioneer Settlers of Augusta County, Virginia (pages 57 to 203). This book includes quite a few references to original records. Pages 5 thru 12 of this same book discuss Alexander Crawford (1715-1764).

Part 2: William Crawford m Mary Ann Douglas – I haven’t done much research on Alexander’s parents but the first few pages of the book, Descendants of Alexander and Mary McPheeters Crawford does provide some information. Col. William Crawford (1691-1761) on the FamilySearch tree has quite a few sources attached. Unfortunately, some FS users are confusing this Col. William Crawford with the Col. William Crawford who was killed in Ohio. Thus one would have to sourt thru the sources to isolate those for the Col. William Crawford of Scotland. Looking at the record of changes for him, it appears that there are some serious researchers that one could contact to see if they have more information. https://www.familysearch.org/tree/person/details/LVQ4-928

Part 3: Robert Crawford md Mary Shaw – Again, I haven’t done much research on this couple. However, a researcher of the William Crawford (1748-1809) who was in the Garrard County, KY area at the same time as my ancestor says that Robert Crawford and Mary Shaw are the great grandparents of his William Crawford. He also believes that William Crawford is a brother to James Crawford (md Rebecca Anderson). [A descendant of this James Crawford has completed a big Y test and is a match to my line]. I believe this other researcher has at least some documentation to support his theory. He has 32 sources attached on Family Search. Most of those resources are from Scotland Births… and some may be duplicates. https://www.familysearch.org/tree/person/details/L5B1-L8Y

 Part 4: Patrick Crawford (1628-1656) – This is where I have to totally rely on the research of others. On FamilySearch, there are a few sources attached and several active researchers.  https://www.familysearch.org/tree/person/details/L6XY-SV8

Part 5 – And then we get to James Crawford (1588-1660) and his wife Margaret Maxwell. Again I have not done any research. However, I do have records placing MAXWELLs in the same vicinity as the CRAWFORDs in Virginia and Kentucky. Bazeleel Maxwell is a brother-in-law to James Crawford (1758-1836) [BigY test]. I have found the Maxwells on the same tax records where I have found the CRAWFORD families of Lincoln/Garrard/Madison counties, Kentucky. Below is a link to James Crawford (1588-1660) on FamilySearch – https://www.familysearch.org/tree/person/details/93KH-WV2

Part 6 – The book, Descendants of Alexander Crawford, contains some info on his ancestry on pages 1 thru 4.

Part 7: At first, I researched Alexander Crawford (1715-1764) in hopes that my line connected. However, it became fairly obvious that my line does not descend from Alexander. However, I’ve kept that original research and keep referring back to his line since his descendants seem to cross paths with the research of my line. Another source that provides info on Alexander’s descendants and possibly some info on his ancestry is the following book: William M. Clemens, Crawford Family Records: An Account of the First American Settlers and Colonial Families of the Name of Crawford (New York: William M. Clemens, 1914), This book is available as full text on FamilySearch: https://www.familysearch.org/…/218570-crawford-family…

As pointed out in a reply to my posts, the Clan Crawford Association maintains an archive of Crawford family resources. This archive is one of the benefits provided to members of the Clan Crawford Association. Please consider joining the discussion – both on Facebook and as a member of the Clan Crawford Association.

James Crawford / Nancy Sawyers

When researching a surname, do you ever encounter a ‘famous’ individual who seems to illogically appear in a lot of trees? With colonial CRAWFORD research, we have two such individuals. One is Col. William Crawford who was burned at the stake in the area that became Ohio. The other is Alexander Crawford and his wife Mary McPheeters Crawford who were killed by Indians in 1764.

In my research, I have had to sort out my line from the line of Alexander and Mary (McPheeters) Crawford. For a long time, I just assumed that Alexander’s line was ‘not my line’. However, with yDNA it appears that my line might have a common ancestor with the line of Alexander Crawford. My James Crawford line has been placed in the R1b-01B group while a descendant of Alexander Crawford has been placed in the R1b-01F group. Even though we aren’t closely related, it appears like we do have a common ancestor.

Since this suggested relationship is dependent on both of our trees being accurate, I decided to do some research on the tree posted by the Alexander Crawford descendant.

This tree goes thru Alexander’s son, William who married Rachel Sawyers and their son, James Crawford who married Nancy Ann Sawyers. These generations match up with the research included in the book, Descendants of Alexander and Mary McPheeters Crawford by Amanda Crawford, Arbogast Forbes and Lucetta Crawford Sammes.

Knowing the tree aligned with the research found in this book, I started researching James Crawford and Nancy Ann Sawyers, and their descendants. Below is the family group sheet that I have compiled for James Crawford and his wife Nancy Sawyers.

Endnotes

  1.         Find a Grave, database and images, Find a Grave (www.findagrave.com : viewed online November 2016), memorial for James Crawford (1772-1854), Find a Grave Memorial no. #41243396, created by Debbie Crowder, citing Prairie Grove Cemetery, Prairie Grove, Washington County, Arkansas;, James Crawford.
  2.         Helen McPheeters Rice, The McPheeters Family (Winter Park, FL: No publisher, 1956), p. 168.
  3.         William M. Clemens, Crawford Family Records: An Account of the First American Settlers and Colonial Families of the Name of Crawford (New York: William M. Clemens, 1914), p. 10[AccessType] [AccessDate].
  4.         Arkansas, Northwestern Counties History, 1889, James Crawford, 1830; digital images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : viewed online September 2019). Original Source: History of Benton, Washington, Carroll, Madison, Crawford, Franklin and Sebastian Counties, Arkansas published in 1889.
  5.         1830 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Washington County, Arkansas, image 11 of 24 , James Crawford; digital image, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : viewed online September 2019).
  6.         History of Benton, Washington, Carroll, Madison, Crawford, Franklin and Sebastian Counties, Arkansas (Chicago, IL: Goodspeed Publishing, 1889), page 147; digital image, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : viewed online 26 May 2020.
  7.         1840 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Mountain Township, Washington County, Arkansas, image 1 of 6 Image , James Crawford; digital iamge, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : viewed online September 2019).
  8.         1850 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Marshill Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 330 (stamped), family 20, E. M. Crawford; digital image, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : viewed online September 2019).
  9.         Dodd, Jordan, “Virginia, Compiled Marriages, 1660-1800,” database, Ancestry.com, http://www.ancestry.com (: viewed online September 2019), James Crawford.
  10.         Virginia, Select Marriages, 1785-1940, James Crawford, 31 January 1797; database online, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : viewed online September 2019).
  11.         U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900 database, Ancestry.com (https://www.ancestry.com/search/collections/7836/). Yates Publishing. U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900.
  12.         “Virginia, Land, Marriage and Probate Recrods, 1639-1850,” database, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : viewed online September 2019), James Crawford.
  13.         First Marriage Record of Augusta County, Virginia 1785-1813, James Crawford – Nancy Sawyers, 31 January 1797; digital image, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : viewed online September 2019). Original Source: compiled by Col. Thomas Hughart Chapter, D.A.R., 1979.
  14.         Find a Grave, database and images, Find a Grave (www.findagrave.com : viewed online 6 June 2020), memorial for Nancy Ann Sawyers Crawford (1771-1854), Find a Grave Memorial no. #41243397.
  15.         Edmund West comp., Family Data Collection – Births (Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2001), Nancy Ann Sawyers.
  16.         Find a Grave, database and images, Find a Grave (www.findagrave.com : viewed online 3 June 2020), memorial for William Crawford (1797-1889), Find a Grave Memorial no. #25935730.
  17.         Texas, Death Certificates, 1903-1982, Silverton, Briscoe, Texas, Pleasant Lafayett Crawford, 15 April 1912; database on-line, Ancestry.com http://www.ancestry.com . viewed online 3 June 2020.
  18.         1850 U.S. Census, Washington County Arkansas, population schedule, Marrs Hill Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 332 Image 9 of 15, family 59, William Crawford; digital image, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : viewed online 3 June 2020); NARA microfilm publication M432.
  19.         1860 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Marrs Hill Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 74 Image 16 of 23, family 106, William Crawford; digital image, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : viewed online 3 June 2020); NARA microfilm publication M653.
  20.         1870 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Marrs Hills Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 25 Image 25 of 32, family 164, Crawford Wm; digital image, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : viewed online 3 June 2020); NARA Microfilm Publication T132.
  21.         1880 U.S. Census, Stephens County, Texas, population schedule, , ; digital images, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed ); NARA microfilm publication T9.
  22.         Find a Grave, database and images, Find a Grave (www.findagrave.com : viewed online 3 June 2020), memorial for Lucinda “Lucy” Crawford Moore (1799-1881), Find a Grave Memorial no. #41243580.
  23.         1850 U.S. Census, Washington County Arkansas, population schedule, Mountain Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 7, , Lucinda Moore.
  24.         1860 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Cane Hill Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 84, family 15, Lucinda Moore.
  25.         1870 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Mountain Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 11, family 83, Lucy Moore.
  26.         1880 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Prairie Grove, Washington County, Arkansas, ; digital imags, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed ); NARA microfilm publication T9.
  27.         “Local News,” Fayetteville Weekly Democrat (Fayetteville, Arkansas), 20 October 1881, page 5; digital image, Newspapers.com (www.newspaper.com : viewed online 3 June 2020).
  28.         Find a Grave, database and images, Find a Grave (www.findagrave.com : viewed online 4 June 2020), memorial for Hannah H. Crawford Divin (1805-1882), Find a Grave Memorial no. #44083700.
  29.         “Arkansas, Compiled Census and Census Substitutions Index, 1819-1870,”Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : viewed online (4 June 2020), Hannah Divin; Jackson, ron V., Accelerated Indexing Systems, comp., Arkansas Census, 1819-1870.
  30.         1840 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Mountain Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 21, , Hannah Divin.
  31.         1850 U.S. Census, Washington County Arkansas, population schedule, Mountain Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 8, family 53, Hannah Devin.
  32.         Find a Grave, database and images, Find a Grave (www.findagrave.com : viewed online 4 June 2020), memorial for Mary Armstrong Crawford West (1810-1849), Find a Grave Memorial no. #41243675.
  33.         U.S. Federal Census Mortlaity Schedules, 1850-1880, Mary A. West, 1850; database with images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : viewed online 4 June 2020).
  34.         Find a Grave, database and images, Find a Grave (www.findagrave.com : viewed online 4 June 2020), memorial for George Alexander Crawford (1812-1875), Find a Grave Memorial no. #27157185.
  35.         Oregon, Biographical and Other Index File, 1700s-1900s, George Alexander Crawford, database with images, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : viewed online 4 June 2020). Original Source: Oregon Historical Society.
  36.         1850 U.S. Census, Washington County Arkansas, population schedule, Mountain Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 378, family 131, George A. Crawford.
  37.         1860 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Marrs Hill Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 58, family 1, George Crawford.
  38.         1870 U.S. Census, Clackamas County, Oregon, population schedule, Hardings Precinct, Clackamas County Oregon, page 3 Image 9 of 11, family 716, G. A. Crawford; digital images, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : viewed online 4 June 2020); NARA microfilm publication M593.
  39.         “Tennessee, Marriage Records, 1780-2002,” database with images, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : viewed online 4 June 2020), George A. Crawford.
  40.         Find a Grave, database and images, Find a Grave (www.findagrave.com : viewed online 5 June 2020), memorial for Robert Donald “Bob” Crawford (1816-1899), Find a Grave Memorial no. #41684621.
  41.         1850 U.S. Census, Washington County Arkansas, population schedule, Marrs Hill Township, Washington County, Arkansas, family 62, Robt D Crawford.
  42.         1860 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Marrs Hill Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 78 and 79, family 139, Robert Crawford.
  43.         1870 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Marrs Hill Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 25, family 170, Crawford R D.
  44.         1880 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Marrs Hill Township, Washington County, Arkansas, ED 203, Page 18, family 156, Robert D Crawford.
  45.         “Arkansas, Compiled Marriages, 1779-1850,” database, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : viewed online 5 June 2020), Robert D Crawford.
  46.         Find a Grave, database and images, Find a Grave (www.findagrave.com : viewed online 5 June 2020), memorial for Edward McLin Crawford (1818-1862), Find a Grave Memorial no. #27157163.
  47.         1860 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Marrs Hill Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 58, family 2, Edward Crawford.
  48.         Rice, The McPheeters Family, page 172.
  49.         Find a Grave, database and images, Find a Grave (www.findagrave.com : viewed online 10 February 2020), memorial for John Irbin Crawford (1801-1876), Find a Grave Memorial no. #39058782.
  50.         1830 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas Territory, population schedule, Washington County, Arkansas Territory, ; digital image, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed ).
  51.         1840 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Mountain Township, Washington County, Arkansas, , John Crawford.
  52.         1850 U.S. Census, Washington County Arkansas, population schedule, Marshill Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 336, family 89, John Crawford.
  53.         1860 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Mountain Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 35, family 241, John Crawford.
  54.         1870 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Marrs Hill Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 9, family 61, S R Crawford.
  55.         1850 U.S. Census, Washington County Arkansas, population schedule, Mountain Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 8, family 51, William Morton.
  56.         1860 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Mountain Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 36, family 10, William Morton.
  57.         1870 U.S. Census, Washington County, Arkansas, population schedule, Mountain Township, Washington County, Arkansas, page 15, family 108, Wm Morton.

Based on this brief research of James Crawford and his wife Nancy Sawyers and their descendants, I believe that the tree for the Alexander Crawford yDNA test is valid. Thus, even though my line isn’t closely related to that of Alexander Crawford, we do share a common ancestor, somewhere back in the tree. As I learn more about Alexander, his siblings and his parents, I might find information that helps me identify my Crawford heritage.